1996 Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program

NRAO National Radio Astronomy Observatory
Research Projects by NRAO Site

Charlottesville, Virginia (NRAO Headquarters)

Charlottesville REU96 summer students foraging. Left to right: Brian Wang, John Armstrong, Julianne Zuber (GB), Daniel Larson, Eric Schulman (mentor), Mary Putman, Jennifer Wiseman (mentor), Matthew Weatherly (GB) and Gregory Holsclaw (GB).

There were four students in the 1996 NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program at NRAO-Charlottesville. Highlights of the program included a series of introductory level lectures on aspects of astronomy, particularly radio astronomy, spread over a few weeks. These lectures were intended to aquaint the students with the research which various staff members carry out.

Left to right: Matthew Weatherly (GB), Daniel Larson. Gregory Holsclaw (GB) John Armstrong, Julianne Zuber (GB), Mary Putman, and Brian Wang.

Many of the students in the NRAO-Green Bank program visited Charlottesville for a tour of the Central Development Laboratory , and of the University of Virginia's facility for the fabrication of the Semiconductor-Insulator-Semiconductor detectors used in millimeter wave receivers, the Semiconductor Device Laboratory.

REU96 students from Charlottesville and Green Bank find pizza at Anna's. Left to right: Brian Wang, John Armstrong, Julianne Zuber (GB), Daniel Larson, Eric Schulman (mentor), Mary Putman, Jennifer Wiseman (mentor), Matthew Weatherly (GB) and Gregory Holsclaw (GB).

The students had an informal get-together with astronomers from the University of Virginia at lunch, and from NRAO in the evening, followed by a visit with graduate students from the University's Astronomy Department.

In August, the Charlottesville students visited Green Bank to see the NRAO telescopes located there, to meet members of the Green Bank staff, and to attend the annual picnic.

The students gave a series of 15 minute talks on their projects during a lunch symposium in Charlottesville before they began leaving for the summer. They produced short reports describing their summer research.

REU96 summer students tour the Green Bank Telescope. Left to right, Daniel Larson, John Armstrong and Mary Putman.

The students traveled to Green Bank for a session of observations on the 43m telescope. This involved observations of OH emission from C/1995 O1 Hale-Bopp, peaking in intensity near this time.

REU96 summer students at the 43m controls move the leviathan telescope onto Comet Hale-Bopp to measure its OH emission. Left to right, Daniel Larson, Operator J. D. Nelson, Advisor Al Wootten, Mary Putman and John Armstrong.

CV Summer Student Schedule, Summer 1996

Date Person Item Location Time
19 Jun Wootten Orientation Rm 317 ER0900
19 Jun Weatherly Visit of Green Bank Summer Students Alden House pm
20 Jun Bradley Central Development Lab Introduction Rm 228 Ivy Road 9am
20 Jun Bradley Tour of Central Development LabRm 228 Ivy Road 10 am
20 Jun Wootten Pizza Lunch at Anna's No. 5 115 Maury Ave 977-6228 12 noon
20 Jun Bradley Tour of U. Va. Device Fabrication Facility U. Va. 1:30 pm - 3:30 pm
20 Jun Wootten BBQ in the Wootten's backyard, 1714 Solomon Rd. Ch'ville 971-6518 6pm - 8 pm
21 Jun Uson Radiotelescopes and Interferometry Rm 317, 9am
21 Jun open Public Night at McCormick Observatory at the Observatory 9pm
24 Jun open Open... ...
26 Jun Condon Radio Sources Rm 317, 9am
28 Jun Nice Pulsars Rm 317, *9am*
1 Jul Bridle Jets, Radio Galaxies and Quasars Rm 317, 9am
3 Jul D. Hogg The Interstellar Medium in Galaxies Rm 317, 9am
5 Jul open Public Night at McCormick Observatory at the Observatory 9pm
8 Jul Zensus The VLBA: Nuclear Jets and Compact Structures Rm 317, 9am
10 Jul Turner Interstellar Molecules and Their Chemistry Rm 317, 10am
11 Jul Rood Helium-3, University of Virginia TBA
15 Jul Simon Extrasolar Planets and the Millimeter Array Rm 317, 9am
17 Jul Desai Radiowave Scattering Rm 317, 9am
19 Jul Barnbaum Evolved Stars Rm 317, 9am
19 Jul open Public Night at McCormick Observatory at the Observatory 9pm
22 Jul Uson Cosmology Rm 317, 9am
24 Jul Schulman X-Ray Astronomy Rm 317, 9am
26 Jul Uson To Be Announced Rm 317, 9am
31 Jul Wootten Comets Rm 317, 9am
2 Aug Wiseman Molecular Clouds Rm 317, 9am
2 Aug open Public Night at McCormick Observatory at the Observatory 9pm
3 Aug Wiseman Travel to Green Bank for Observatory picnic, tours, etc.......
3 Aug Wiseman CV students overnight Green BankGB...
3 Aug Wiseman GB Picnic GB...
4 Aug Wiseman Return from Green Bank after lunch.GB...
6 Aug Wootten Summer students present their research (lunch)Rm 317 12:05
13 Aug Wootten Travel to Green Bank for Observations of OH in C/Hale Bopp43m8am
13 Aug Wootten Overnight GB.Dormsam
14 Aug Wootten Submit OH paper, tour site, return to CV.GBpm
16 Aug open Public Night at McCormick Observatory at the Observatory 9pm

Daniel Larson, of Harvard University
worked with Eric Schulman

Analysis of X-Ray Observations of M33

Daniel Larson worked with Eric Schulman in analyzing the variability of X-ray sources in M33, using data from the ROSAT and ASCA satellites. In particular, he will precisely determine the period of an eclipsing binary X-ray source in M33 and attempt to determine whether its orbital period is changing. A paper, `A Revised Orbital Period for M33 X-7' by Larson and Schulman, will appear in the February 1997 issue of The Astronomical Journal.

Bryan Wang , of the University of Virginia
worked with Richard F. Bradley

An Adaptive Interference-Cancelling Receiver

Radio emission near 94 MHz from C60 molecules, or `Bucky Balls', might be detected in the interstellar medium with a sensitive telescope such as the NRAO 140' telescope in Green Bank. However, local FM radio interferes at or near the frequency of emission, obscuring the incredibly weak interstellar signal. Bryan worked with Richard to design a receiver capable of cancelling the undesired radio interference, using an adaptive Least-Mean-Squared cancellation algorithm.

John Armstrong , of the University of Iowa

worked with A. Zensus and K. Kellerman

A 2cm VLBI Survey

We are conducting the survey using the VLBA at 2cm to investigate the properties of compact extragalactic radio sources. The survey is aimed at morphological source classification, the physics of parsec-scale jet sources, and determination of parameters used in cosmology. The summer project will include the complete analysis of a 2 day observing run in April. This involves data calibration, image analysis, classification, and search for superluminal motion. The results will be compared to 4 runs we have had in 1994/1995. The summer project will be a good opportunity for John to learn about VLBI, and to get a detailed training on VLBA data analysis. His experience with AIPS will be useful and give him a head start towards working on interesting aspects of the project. Besides the work on the data, we plan to involve John in literature research to collect information about the survey sources. Finally, we are also planning to make part of the project results available on the World-Wide Web, which he will be involved in as well.

Mary Putman, of the University of Wisconsin
worked with Jennifer Wiseman

Studies of Stellar Outflows

She and Jennifer studied high velocity molecular gas outflows from young stellar objects in the Orion Molecular Cloud, using data from the VLA.

Will Morrison, of Western Albemarle High School
worked with Paul Shannon

The CO Distribution in C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake)

An image of the carbon monoxide distribution in C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake) taken by Jeff Mangum with the NRAO 12m radiotelescope will be analyzed. The primary goal of the project is to determine whether the azimuthally averaged image shows evidence for a second source of CO located within the coma. Such a second source, arising from photodissociation of more complex molecules, has been hypothesized. A measurement of its location could offer clues to the identity of the parent molecule. Will was not employed by the REU program.

NRAO/Socorro 1996 Research Experience for
Undergraduates (REU) Program

Here are the NRAO/Socorro 1996 REU summer students (+ Anuj), visiting the VLA on the plains of San Augustin:

1 - Lauren Herold , 2 - Craig Heinke , 3 - Olivia Johnson , 4 - Todd Konkel , 5 - Lon Freeman , 6 - Gus Tucker , 7 - Pat Udomprasert , 8 - Andrew Kerr , 9 - Anuj Sarma (non-REU summer student)

The summer REU program at NRAO/Socorro in 1996 consisted of 4 main categories of activity:

1 - student research projects, in collaboration with an NRAO advisor
2 - lectures to the students by NRAO staff members
3 - a joint student project, involving observations with the Very Large Array (VLA)
4 - guided tours of the VLA, given by the students on weekends

The 1996 REU program at NRAO/Socorro is under the direction of Bryan Butler , assisted by Min Yun , both of whom are Jansky Postdoctoral Researchers at NRAO/Socorro.

Student Research Projects

Each of the REU students worked with one or more advisors on one or more projects throughout the summer. This was the main focus of the program, and the majority of the students' time was spent on these research endeavors. These projects involved observing, data reduction and analysis, equipment development, and theoretical studies. At the end of the program, each student gave a lunch talk explaining the main project(s) he or she worked on during the summer. The possibility exists for the students to present their original research at scientific meetings deemed appropriate by their advisor(s). Following is a detailed list of the specific projects carried out by the NRAO/Socorro REU students:

Robert (Lon) Freeman , of Princeton University
Advisor: Jim Ruff


Lon worked on converting rasterized antenna drawings (obtained by scanning in old VLA blueprints) into vectorized drawings. He did this through the use of CAD software. The vectorized drawings are much simpler to work with, and will be used by the engineers in the future. He also created a finite element model of the pedestal of the VLA antennas. This model will be used to do structural studies pertaining to the VLA upgrade.

Catharine (Olivia) Johnson, of Vassar College
Advisors: Miller Goss and Chris DePree


Olivia worked on H66alpha observations of M17-UC1, an UltraCompact HII region which is also a Broad Line source. She looked at 1.35-cm (K-band) spectral line data taken at the VLA. The conclusions are that the arc of material near UC1 is an ionization front, which somehow focuses a shock which is propagating from the other side of the arc. This shock has then induced star formation, and UC1 is a photoionized shell from a B0 star. All BL sources may be formed in a similar fashion. The results seem to support the data, model and conclusions of earlier workers (Felli et al.).

For a full description of Olivia's project, click here .

Andrew Kerr , of Bradley University
Advisor: Paul Lilie


Andrew worked on investigating the behavior of the 43 GHz receiver system. The 43 GHz system is the newest receiver system at the VLA, and is the highest operating frequency of the antenna. As such, calibration is as challenging as the science the array produces is exciting. Accurate values for the calibration temperature values (Tcal's) for each of the 13 Q-band antennas are an important step towards making the 43 GHz system more usable. The Tcal's (and fluctuations in them) were accurately determined by using hot, sky, and liquid nitrogen loads in conjunction with manual tipping scans throughout the summer. Although the system showed some problems associated with cloud cover and ambient temperature, the determination of the Tcal values was quite successful.

For a full description of Andrew's project, click here .

Lauren Herold , of Princeton University
Advisor: Min Yun


Lauren worked on debugging and providing a user friendly graphical interface for software which maps the perturbation of HI in interacting galaxies using 3-body simulations. She modified existing software in order to create a program with a good graphics display and versatility so that it may in the future be used to examine the orbital details of two or more interacting galaxies quickly and easily, without having to do any full N-body calculation. The M81-M82-NGC3077 interacting system was examined, showing that most of the morphology may be reproduced (and displayed) with this technique.

For a full description of Lauren's project, click here .

Todd Konkel , of Rice University
Advisor: Bryan Butler


Todd worked on L-band (21.4 cm) data from Uranus and Neptune, taken with the VLA during 1995 and 1996 (using the outer array during Q-band tests). The data from several different runs were calibrated, and added together. The estimated value of the received flux density was then used to calculate the disk-averaged brightness temperature of the two bodies. These numbers were: Tb(Uranus) = 250 +- 9 K; Tb(Neptune) = 307 +- 12 K. These numbers are similar to previous measurements, but with smaller uncertainties. These brightness temperatures seem to indicate some difference in the opacity sources of the two bodies at great depth (10's of bars).

For a full description of Todd's project, click here .

Craig Heinke , of Carleton College
Advisor: Dale Frail


Craig worked on two projects this summer: the first involving positions of Gamma Ray Bursters (GRB's), and the second involving measuring the motion of the Pulsar 1257+12. The GRB project involved the reduction and analysis of VLA data from a long-term monitoring effort on GRB's. The objective was to try to find any indication of variable radio sources within the error boxes of GRB sources. No such sources were found, and a tight upper limit on the maximum flux density of any such source was found. The pulsar project involved taking several epochs of VLA data and measuring the position and motion of the pulsar, relative to many other radio sources in the field. A proper motion which agrees well with that obtained from accurate timing measurements was measured.

For a full description of Craig's project, click here .

Patricia Udomprasert , of Princeton University
Advisor: Greg Taylor


Pat worked on multi-frequency VLBA observations of the Compact Steep Spectrum (CSS) sources 3C318 and OQ172. Taking into account the redshift of OQ172, it has the highest Rotation Measure (RM) ever seen in any source (RM >~ 10000). The RM structure was also mapped with 2 masec resolution in OQ172.

For a full description of Pat's project, click here .

Gus Tucker, of Athens State College
Advisor: Clint Janes


Gus worked with on ways to monitor Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) , worked on developing RFI Bulletins for the Very Large Array (VLA) and Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) homepages, and worked with interference data taken at VLBA sites. He used the Spectrum Analyzer software package SPAN to take in and analyze the RFI data.

For a full description of Gus' project, click here .

Lectures, etc...

Several lectures about radio astronomy and interferometry were presented, allowing the students to obtain a good understanding of the technique. Talks were also given on general topics in astronomy, presented by members of the scientific staff. The astronomy talks were designed to give the students an understanding of what sort of research goes on at NRAO, and in radio astronomy in general. The detailed list of lectures and events for the summer is in the following table.

NRAO/Socorro Summer Student Schedule, 1996
Date Time Location Item
6/11 1400 CON3 Discussion of this list - Min Yun
6/12 1400 CON1 Safety Lecture - Jon Spargo
6/13 0930 CON3 Telescopes - Peter Napier
6/17 1400 CON3 Fourier Transforms - Bryan Butler
6/19 1400 CON3 Basic Interferometry - Tony Beasley
6/20 0930 AUD PR for the VLA - Dave Finley
6/20 1100 Lobby Leave for VLA site/Datil
6/20 1230 Datil Lunch at Eagle Guest Ranch
6/20 1400 Site Guided Tour of VLA - Dave Finley
6/21 1300 CON3 Imaging/Deconvolution - Tim Cornwell
6/22 1030 Site Tours of VLA - summer students
6/23 1030 Site Tours of VLA - summer students
6/24 1400 AUD VLBI - Craig Walker
6/26 1400 AUD VLA Observations (1) - Bryan Butler
6/28 1400 AUD VLA Observations (2) - Bryan Butler
6/29 1030 Site Tours of VLA - summer students
6/30 1030 Site Tours of VLA - summer students
7/01 1400 CON3 Radiative Transfer & Continuum Emission Processes - Bryan Butler
7/03 1400 CON3 Spectral Lines - Min Yun
7/06 0900 Site Tours of VLA - summer students
7/07 0900 Site Tours of VLA - summer students
7/08 0500 Site Observing Time
7/08 1700 Site Observing Time
7/09-7/11 Tucson Trip
7/13 0900 Site Tours of VLA - summer students
7/14 0900 Site Tours of VLA - summer students
7/16 1400 AUD Planets & Sun - Bryan Butler & Tim Bastian
7/18 1300 CON3 Radio Stars, SN/SNR, masers - Michael Rupen
7/20 0900 Site Tours of VLA - summer students
7/21 0900 Site Tours of VLA - summer students
7/22 1430 CON3 Milky Way - Mark Claussen
7/24 1400 CON3 Other Galaxies (HI) - Dave Westpfahl
7/27 0900 Site Tours of VLA - summer students
7/28 0900 Site Tours of VLA - summer students
8/01 1200 AUD lunch talks - Olivia Johnson & Lon Freeman
8/03 0900 Site Tours of VLA - summer students
8/04 0900 Site Tours of VLA - summer students
8/06 1400 CON3 Radio Galaxies - Greg Taylor
8/08 1300 CON3 High-z Objects - Chris Carilli
8/10 0900 Site Tours of VLA - summer students
8/11 0900 Site Tours of VLA - summer students
8/13 1200 AUD lunch talks - Todd Konkel, Lauren Herold & Andrew Kerr
8/15 1200 AUD lunch talks - Pat Udomprasert, Craig Heinke & Gus Tucker
AUD = Auditorium
CON3 = 3rd Floor Conference Room
CON1 = 1st Floor Conference Room

Joint Student Research Project

The students were given 2 hours of their own VLA time, which they used to observe a very high redshift galaxy (z=4.7) at 2-cm, and NGC253 at 1.3 and 0.7-cm.

Back to the NRAO REU Home Page

Last Modified on August 30, 1996

Bryan Butler (bbutler@nrao.edu) Phone: (505)835-7261; FAX: (505)835-7027

Green Bank, West Virginia (NRAO 43m and 100m Telescopes)

Students conducting their research at the NRAO Green Bank Site in West Virginia included . The program at Green Bank is under the direction of Dr. Ron Maddalena.

Matthew Weatherly, of West Virginia University
Arrived 6 May and works with John Ford

Remote Reset and SBC Control box

Matthew worked on 3 projects.

(1) Single-Board Control and Reset Box

For his first project, he designed a "Single-Board Control and Reset Box" that allows an engineer or telescope operator to connect to the console port of a single-board embedded controller, and perform a hardware reset of the board. This box is capable of handling up to 15 embedded computers at a time. There will be 4 of these boxes built for the GBT, and installed in the Receiver room, the Active Surface Room, the Alidade Servo Room, and in the Equipment Room.

The box consists of a terminal server for connecting it to the network, a digital I/O interface for handling the reset bits, and 15 serial interface ports to the various embedded computers. THe whole thing is built into an EMI/RFI shielded rack-mountable enclosure. Matthew built a prototype, and wrote software to control it. The results of his efforts are available on the Web by clicking here . We are releasing the production version for 4 copies later this month.

(2) SIB Reliability enhancement

He then designed and tested a reliability enhancement for the VLBA Standard Interface Board that we are using in most of the GBT systems for communication with the telescope control system. The modification consisted of designing a PC board and picking out components for a power supply monitor and watchdog timer to be retrofitted to the existing design. He built a breadboard prototype of the PC board he designed, and figured out the necessary firmware changes to be made the the VLBA firmware, and tested thes in our lab. We have a package ready to be released for production if the decision is made to do it. This project's design is also available via WWW by clicking here .

(3) GBT Alidade Room Monitor & Control Equipment Rack design

For his 3rd project, Matthew gathered data and laid out the equipment racks for the Alidade room, figured out the interconnections between devices in the racks, and made tables showing these interconnections. These racks will be assembled later this winter and will be eventually installed in the GBT.

Julianne Zuber of Denison University
Arrived 13 May and works with Glen Langston and Frank Ghigo

Survey of the Northern Sky

This summer student would take charge of the 45' all northern sky survey at 8.35 and 14.35 GHz. They would produce a source identification list and check calibration. For a full description of Julianne's project, click here .

Gregory Holsclaw, of West Virginia University
Arrived 20 May and works with Sue Ann Heatherly

The 40ft Radiotelescope

Greg was to learn all he could about the computer interface hardware for the forty foot, the computer control software for the forty foot telescope and the work done by a former summer student to improve these systems, then to build on those improvements - The ultimate outcome is to have a reliable computercontrol system for the forty foot telescope; one that is easier for the observer to use. Greg first learned the basics about radio astronomy instrumentation by using the forty foot. Since there were discrepencies between computer controlled pointing of the telescope and manual pointing of the telescope, Greg was asked to create and conduct pointing experiements with the forty foot telescope. He also improved the motor control hardware. For years we have been blowing relays in the circuit due to power surges when you change the direction in which the telescope is moving. Greg made some changes to the computer interface hardware and worked with the software that had been partially developed by a former summer student. He also analysed the system as it currently stands and made an instructive report about what needs to be done. He documented previously undocumented hardware and software.

Jason Ray, of The West Virginia Institute of Technology

Arrived 13 May and works with Wes Grammer

IF System Hardware for the Green Bank Telescope

Jason Ray, a sophomore at West Virginia Tech, worked to modify a fairly large and sophisticated diagnostic program, used for tests of GBT receivers, LO, and IF system hardware in the lab. The program allows the user control of MCB and HPIB devices via a friendly, mouse-driven graphical user interface (GUI), and runs under MS-DOS an a PC. It is written in C++, and is highly structured and modular, with good internal documentation. However, the author of the program had not time to generate any formal documentation on it, and has since left NRAO. Jason had the formidible task of learning how the program worked, and then make significant modifications/additions to it, adding new menus and graphical screens to implement a new control/monitor interface for the GBT Converter Rack. In this task he was almost entirely on his own. Jason completed the above tasks in only 10 weeks, demonstrating the program's new capabilities with actual GBT hardware in his project presentation. In addition, he solved a memory allocation problem that placed limitations on the number of interface screens that could be open at one time. The remaining week he spent helping another student with hardware problems at the 40' telescope.

Ryan McCowan, of Tennessee Technological University
Arrives 2 June and will work with David Parker

Pointing the Green Bank Telescope

Mr. McCowan worked with the Green Bank Telescope Antenna Metrology group, performing tasks such as; experimental data analysis, conduction of experiments, electronics assembly and testing, software testing, and metrology laboratory assistance.

Tucson, Arizona (NRAO 12m and VLBA Telescopes)

Students conducting their research at the NRAO Tucson Site in Arizona included . The program in Tucson is under the direction of Jeff Hagen. As the NRAO offices are across the street from KPNO/NOAO offices, the REU group shares in the activities of the NOAO REU program there.

Ethan Schartman, of Carnegie-Mellon University
Worked with Simon Radford

MMA Submillimeter Tipping Radiometer

For MMA site testing, Dr. Radford is developing a submm tipper in collaboration with Jeff Peterson at Carngie Mellon University. This device will use an ambient temperature, broad band pyrolelectric detector with bands defined by resonant mesh filters. Initially, the instrument will be operated at a wavelength of 350 um, and then the operation will be extended to both shorter (200 um) and longer (800 and 1100 um) wavelengths. Assembly, testing, and deployment of these instruments will require a broad range of technical skills, including optics, electronics, mechanics, and software. Initial development will be two units, one for the MMA site in Chile (NRAO) and one for the South Pole (CMU/CARA). Several groups are interested in further units once they are developed.

Clair Branch, of University of Michigan
Worked with Jeff Mangum

Visualization of Millimeter Images of the Sky

Ms. Branch will work on coupling OTF data to the PVWave visualization package. In particular, she will build program interfaces to three dimensional data images taken in the `on-the-fly' mode with the 12m, in FITS format and, possibly, AIPS image files. This work will partially build upon the work done by Phil's student of last summer Jim Wren REU95 .

Based on the growing popularity of On The Fly (OTF) observing with the NRAO 12m telescope on Kitt Peak, the astronomical community needed a way to view OTF data more dynamically than with the current two dimensional standards such as AIPS and aipsview. Because the data obtained by OTF observing is four dimensional (i. e. \ right ascension, declination, velocity, and intensity), it makes sense to actually observe these images four dimensionally in velocity-space. To fill this void, Clair Branch (University of Michigan) wrote an interface between OTF data in the FITS format and PV-Wave. As a practical test case for this visualization package, OTF images of the CO emission from a remarkable molecular cloud near the Pleiades star cluster were analyzed. The molecular cloud ``visitor'' near the Pleiades star cluster presents a unique case of cluster-cloud interaction in the interstellar medium. The cometary structure of this cloud is due to the apparent interaction between the Pleiades and a molecular cloud which has been injected into the region. Since most star-cloud interactions involve HII regions or supernova remnants, the proximity (about 135 pc) and unusual nature of the Pleiades cluster-cloud interaction represents a unique environment in which to study the detailed structure within this phenomenon. Using OTF measurements of the CO J=2-1 emission toward this region, the visualization software developed by Clair Branch allowed us to study the physical conditions and dynamics of this interaction region.

Raymond Kennedy, of Cameron University
Worked with Matt Waddel

Analysis of Thermal Characteristics of the 12m Radiotelescope

Raymond Kennedy was hired to integrate a temperature monitoring system for the backup structure of the 12m telescope. The hardware portion of this project was designed and built last summer by another summer intern. Raymond's task this summer was to write the software that would display the thermal data visually. A visual display has been installed at Kitt Peak.

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