2001 Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program

NRAO National Radio Astronomy Observatory
2001 is the 42nd Anniversary of the NRAO Summer Student Program!
Research Projects by NRAO Site

Charlottesville, Virginia (NRAO Headquarters)

There are five students in the 2001 Summer Student Research Program, four of them under the NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program at NRAO-Charlottesville. Highlights of the program included a series of introductory level lectures on aspects of astronomy, particularly radio astronomy, spread over a few weeks. These lectures are intended to aquaint the students with the research which various staff members carry out. The lectures are listed below.

2001 Summer students from Green Bank traveled to Charlottesville to tour the CDL, U. Va. and NRAO HQ. (l-r) Paul Robinson, Matt Lister, Michael Wallace, Richard Simon, Emily Freeland, Julie Rupert, Zach Manganello, Melissa Williams, John Hibbard and Al Wootten.

Many of the students in the NRAO-Green Bank program visit Charlottesville for a tour of the Central Development Laboratory , and of the University of Virginia's facility for the fabrication of the Semiconductor-Insulator-Semiconductor detectors used in millimeter wave receivers, the Applied Electrophysics Laboratory.

Students in the Clean Room where SIS mixers are made. (l-r) Michael Wallace, Tim Thacker (second generation NRAO summer student), Skip Thacker (NRAO Summer Student 196?), Paul Robinson, K. Saini and A. Lichtenberger.

2001 Summer students from Green Bank and Charlottesville met at a pizza lunch get-together with mentors and lecturers and U. Va. personnel in Charlottesville.

The 2001 students enjoy an informal get-together with astronomers from the University of Virginia and NRAO at lunch. followed by a visit with graduate students from the University's Astronomy Department.

Later in the summer, the Charlottesville students visited Green Bank again to tour the NRAO telescopes located there, to meet members of the Green Bank staff, and to attend the annual picnic on 28 July.

One highlight will be initial operations of the Green Bank telescope ( GBT ), the world's largest steerable telescope. It is an offset parabaloid, 110m across the longest axis, incorporating 16 million lbs of steel in the moving structure.

The 40 ft telescope there is a student telescope, open for any project which students would like to carry out on it (though its instrumentation is limited). If there is interest, we may carry out, probably remotely, a project on the VLA.

We're very excited about the Atacama Large Millimeter Array, which was selected as the top priority for a new astronomical instrument in the 90s back at the beginning of the decade by the Astronomy Survey Committee. Students got to see it take shape as the fourth year of design and development gets underway.

The students give a series of 15 minute talks on their projects during a lunch symposium in Charlottesville before they begin leaving for the summer. They produce short reports describing their summer research.

Students (l-r) Michael Wallace, Zach Manganello, Melissa Williams, Emily Freeman, Julie Rupert and Paul Robinson leave full of cosmology after a lecture by Juan Uson.

CV Summer Student Schedule, Summer 2001

Date Person Item Location  Time
18 May  open  Students begin arriving 
4 Jun  open  All students have arrived  at the Observatory  9pm
14 June  Murphy  Introduction to Radio Astronomy  NRAO,Room 317, Stone Hall  9am 
15 Jun  open  Public Night at McCormick Observatory  at the Observatory. By the end of public night, Mars should be above the trees, and will be about 19-20" in diameter. Should be an impressive sight, even through a small telescope.  9pm
18 June  Wootten  The REU Program at NRAO; From millivolts to Column Density  NRAO,Room 317, Stone Hall  9am 
20 June  Turner  Interstellar Molecules  NRAO,Room 317, Stone Hall  9am 
22 June  Condon  Radio Sources  NRAO,Room 317, Stone Hall  9am 
25 June  Lister  TBA  NRAO,Room 317, Stone Hall  9am 
27 June  Open  TBA  NRAO,Room 317, Stone Hall  9am 
29 June  Kempner  Radio Relics and Halos  NRAO,Room 317, Stone Hall  not given 
30 June  Goldin  MAP Satellite Launch  Cape Canaveral  ?? 
30 June  Open  Comet LINEAR (C/2001 A2) swings by Earth Dark skies near you  Look Up! 
2 Jul  Open    NRAO,Room 317, Stone Hall  9am 
4 July  Fireworks!    McIntire Park  Dark 
6 July  Kellerman  The Development of Radio Astronomy  NRAO,Room 317, Stone Hall  Ppnd 
6 Jul  open  Public Night at McCormick Observatory  at the Observatory  9pm
9 July  Hogg  Radio Stars  NRAO,Room 317, Stone Hall  9am 
11 Jul  Liszt  The Galactic Center  NRAO,Room 317, Stone Hall  9am 
13 July  Sarazin  Chandra: X-ray Astronomy  NRAO,Room 317, Stone Hall  9am 
16 Jul  Wootten  ALMA and Star Formation  NRAO,Room 317, Stone Hall  9am 
18 Jul  Wootten  ALMA and Star Formation (continued)  NRAO,Room 317, Stone Hall  9am 
18 Jul  Wootten  Visit of Green Bank Students to Charlottesville  NRAO,Room 317, Stone Hall  pm
19 Jul  Bradley  Central Development Lab Introduction  Rm 228 Ivy Road  9am
19 Jul  Thacker  Tour of Central Development Lab  Rm 228 Ivy Road  10am
19 Jul  All Pizza Lunch with U. Va.  Anna's Pizza  12pm
19 Jul  Crowe  Tour of U. Va. Device Fabrication Facility  U. Virginia  1:20pm
19 Jul  Wootten  BBQ for CV, GB REUs and mentors  Edgemont Road Garden  6pm
20 July  Uson  Cosmology  NRAO,Room 317, Stone Hall  9am 
20 July  open  Public Night at McCormick Observatory  at the Observatory  9pm
23 July  Hibbard  Galaxy Morphology  NRAO,Room 317, Stone Hall  11am 
25 July  Hibbard  Interacting Galaxies  NRAO,Room 317, Stone Hall  1pm 
27 July  Kempner  Radio Relics and Halos  NRAO,Room 317, Stone Hall  9am 
27 July  All  CV REUs -> Green Bank Picnic  Green Bank, W. Va.  evening
28 July  All  CV REUs -> Green Bank Picnic  Green Bank, W. Va.  noon
29 July  All  CV REUs tour GB; return from Green Bank Picnic  Green Bank, W. Va.  noon
30 July  Open  Open  NRAO,Room 317, Stone Hall  9am 
31 July  Students  REU research presentations  Rm 317, Stone Hall  high noon 
1 August  Open  Open NRAO,Room 317, Stone Hall  9am 
3 Aug  open  Public Night at McCormick Observatory  at the Observatory  9pm
11 August Aug  Leonids  Meteor Shower  Deltaville, Virginia Midnight 

Emily Freeland of Indiana University  
works with Matt Lister

Circular Polarization Imaging of Active Galactic Nuclei at 43 GHz

This observational study involves a search for circularly polarized emission in a sample of bright, flat-spectrum AGNs at 43 GHz. The data were taken with the VLBA over the period 1999-2000 and include many well-known blazars such as 3C 273 and 3C 279, both of which have been found to display circular polarization (C.P.) at lower frequencies. Since the data were originally processed with only linear polarization images in mind, this project will involve a careful re-calibration of the data, paying close attention to the relative calibration of the left and right complex antenna gains.

Models of intrinsic circular polarization predict a higher amount of C.P. at 43 GHz than at lower frequencies due to reduced opacity and other effects. These data can therefore provide a useful means of distinguishing between competing intrinsic C.P. and Faraday conversion mechanisms in AGNs. Using the multiple epochs available for 3C 279, it will be possible to check for variations of C.P. in this source at 43 GHz.  Homan et al. (1999) found 3C 279's C.P. to be highly stable at 15 GHz, which is unusual given its large variations in linear polarization and intensity. This project is best suited for an advanced undergraduate student or graduating senior who is interested in learning about AGNs and cutting-edge VLBI research. The work is likely to be data-intensive, with a smaller amount of time spent on theory.

Megan Kohring, of The University of Virginia
will work with John Hibbard
in collaboration with  J. Barnes (IfA) on

Tidal Dwarf Formation in Tidal Tails

It has long been known (eg Schweizer 1978) that clumps of star formation with properties similar to dwarf galaxies exist within tidal features.  Some of these features show enhancements also in the underlying stellar light and in the neutral gas column  density and line-profile width, leading to the suggesting that they will evolve into independent dwarf galaxy satellites. This suggestion is supported by detailed numerical simulations which demonstrate that self-gravitating structures can indeed develop in tidal material torn off during galaxy interactions.  However, the observational evidence that optical enhancements within the tidal tails are in fact distinct identities is rare or non-existence. Many may be simply unbound collections of young stars recently born within the tail, but destined to fade into obscurity within a few hundred million years.

The goal of the present project is to identify bound clumps within tidal tails generated via numerical simulations of merging galaxies, and to quantify their expected observatial characteristics. Simulated maps of the integrated intensity, velocity field, and velocity dispersion will be generated and examined to see if the location of the bound clumps distinguish themselves from projected (but unbound) enhancements. Next, the student will make simulated measurements of the dynamical mass of the clumps (from the half-light profiles and "observed" velocity dispersion), and compare these values to their "true" mass. Finally, the student will examine high-resolution HI observations of the nearest and most famous tailed merger, NGC 4038/9
("The Antennae") to see if any of the regions within its tails exhibit the expected behavior of bound clumps.
  A report on this research may be read.

2001 Summer students Zach Manganello and Tim Thacker mount the Charlottesville Telescope (CVT) between NRAO and U. Va. Astronomy.

Zachary Manganello , of Middlebury College  

works with Lynn Matthews and John Effland

The Small Radio Telescope

A version of the Haystack Small Radio Telescope kit will be constructed.

Juliette Rupert , of  The University of Oklahoma  
works with Richard Simon

Identifying Promising Target Stars for the Terrestrial Planet Finder Mission

There is widespread interest in the problem of identifying and characterizing Earth-like planets that might exist around nearby stars. To date, little systematic work has been done on carefully identifying the few hundred nearby stars that are the most promising candidates for a search of this type. By using a combination of careful calculation and detailed work with the literature, it should be possible to create a definitive list of the most promising stars for such searches. This work will have a significant effect on the planning of future space missions and will also prove useful to a number of monitoring programs already underway.

Timothy Thacker, of Virginia Tech  
works with John Effland 

SIS Mixer Test System

Following our specifications and under the guidance of CDL engineering, the student would design circuits and construct hardware for the SIS mixer test system.  This hardware would consist of measurement subsystems such as control of LO frequency and power, amplifier bias supplies, or mixer bias supplies.  The student would be required to design analog circuits consisting primarily of op amps and would create mechanical designs using AutoCAD.  The student would be expected to write software for automated testing of the hardware.  CDL engineering would provide to the student the software design consisting of UML class, sequence, and activity diagrams.  The student would be expected to write and document object oriented code that meets the software design requirements.


NRAO/Socorro 2001 Research Experience for 
Undergraduates (REU) Program

2001 Summer students from Socorro in a VLA antenna (photo courtesy of J. Anderson).

The summer REU program at NRAO/Socorro in 2000 consists of 4 main categories of activity:

1 - student research projects, in collaboration with an NRAO advisor
2 - lectures to the students by NRAO staff members
3 - a joint student project, involving observations with the Very Large Array (VLA)
4 - guided tours of the VLA, given by the students on weekends

The 2001 REU program at NRAO/Socorro is under the direction of Tracy Clarke and Greg Taylor. Dr. Clarke is Jansky Postdoctoral Researcher at NRAO/Socorro, and Dr. Taylor is a member of the scientific research staff.

Lectures, etc...

Several lectures about radio astronomy and interferometry will be presented, allowing the students to obtain a good understanding of the technique. Talks were also given on general topics in astronomy, presented by members of the scientific staff. The astronomy talks were designed to give the students an understanding of what sort of research goes on at NRAO, and in radio astronomy in general. The detailed list of lectures and events for the summer is in the following table and at the AOC WWW site .

Preliminary 2001 Summer Student Calendar of Events

May 2001

May 18: Colloquium by Steve Myers, "Latest Results from the Cosmic Background Imager"
May 25: Colloquium by David Wilner, "Dusty Disks around Young Stars"
May 30: 10:00 am. VLA Tour #1 by Dave Finley & Vivek Dhawan
May 31: 9:00 am. Safety Lecture #1 by Jon Spargo, 3'rd floor conference room
May 31: 4:00 pm. "What is Radio Astronomy?" by Jim Ulvestad

June 2001

June 1: Colloquium by Lincoln Greenhill, "A Pirate's Treasure Map of Orion BN/KL - X Marks the Spot, but is it a Trick?"
June 5: 11:00 am. "Fundamentals of Radio Astronomy" by Rick Perley
June 7: 4:00 pm. "Imaging and Deconvolution" by Tim Cornwell
June 12: 11:00 am. "Basics of Spectral Line" by Claire Chandler
June 14: 10:00 am. VLA Tour #2 by Dave Finley & Vivek Dhawan
June 15: Colloquium by Mark Gurwell, " Millimeterwave Astronomy of Planetary Atmospheres"
June 19: 11:00 am. "Polarimetry" by Greg Taylor
June 19: 3:00 pm. Safety Lecture #2 by Jon Spargo, auditorium
June 20-22: KPNO/Tucson tour
June 22: Colloquium by David Hughes
June 25: VLA observing run
June 26: 11:00 am. "Radio Evidence for Black Holes in Nearby Galactic Nuclei" by Joan Wrobel
June 28: 4:00 pm. "VLBI" by Craig Walker
June 29: Colloquium by Geoff Marcy

July 2001

July 3: VLA observing run
July 3: 3:00 pm. TBA by Henrique Schmitt
July 4: Holiday
July 5: 4:00 pm. TBA by Dale Frail
July 10: 11:00 am. "Molecular Clouds and Star Formation" by Debra Shepherd
July 12: 4:00 pm. "Atronomical Masers" by Mark Claussen
July 17: 11:00 am. "Magnetic Fields in the Universe" by Crystal Brogan
July 19: 4:00 pm. "Cosmic Microwave Background" by Steve Myers
July 24: 11:00 am. Colloquium by Swarup
July 25: 12 pm Summer student talk by Aaron Boley
July 31: 11:00 am. "Planetary Radio Astronomy" by Bryan Butler

August 2001

Aug 1: 12 pm. Summer student talks by Daniel S., Marj, Jason, and Jenn
Aug 2: 4:00 pm. "Microquasars" by Vivek Dhawan
Aug 7: 12 pm. Summer student talks by Diane, Mike, Matt, and Cristina
Aug 7: 4:00 pm. "Properties of HI in Nearby Galaxies" by Dave Thilker
Aug 8: 12 pm. Summer student talk by Bhasker
Aug 15: 12 pm. Summer student talks by Jim, Katie, Daniel P., and Stacy


Joint Student Research Project

The VLA is in its CnB and C configurations this summer. Some telescope time will be allocated to the summer students to pursue group projects.

Note that last summer one of the NRAO student projects resulted in an exciting discovery of the first radio emission detected from a brown dwarf star! This discovery resulted in a paper in Nature. More details are available on the NRAO press release web page.

Planned Trips

Kitt Peak/Tucson - June 20-22

Apache Point - July 28

Other Stuff

  • A Basic Information Letter is available from the WWW pages.



    Student Research Projects

    Each of the REU students will work with one or more advisors on one or more projects throughout the summer. This is the main focus of the program, and the majority of the students' time will be spent on these research endeavors. These projects involved observing, data reduction and analysis, equipment development, and theoretical studies. At the end of the program, each student gave a lunch talk explaining the main project(s) he or she worked on during the summer. The possibility exists for the students to present their original research at scientific meetings deemed appropriate by their advisor(s). Following is a detailed list of the specific projects carried out by the NRAO/Socorro REU students:

    Jason Adelstein of Columbia University                         

    works with Steve Myers

    The CLASS Survey

    In the next couple of months, a copy of the full CLASS archive (now only at Jodrell Bank) will be set up here at NRAO. There will be the opportunity to then develop some summer student projects based on the CLASS archive. For example:
  • - morphological classifications
  • - polarization properties
  • - correlations with other surveys (eg. FIRST)
  • - update of astrometric catalogues (CLASS accuracy is ~15-30 mas)
  • James Anderson of New Mexico Tech
    works with Jim Ulvestad

    The Flare in NGC 7582--AGN or Supernova?

    The Seyfert galaxy NGC 7582 turned from a Seyfert 2 to a Seyfert 1 galaxy in mid-1998; broad permitted emission lines appeared at the same time that an X-ray flare occurred. The optical spectrum during the flare was similar to that of a Type IIn supernova, so it has been suggested that the flare was due to a supernova rather than an AGN associated with a massive black hole. Many Type IIn supernovae are detected as radio sources, peaking at 500-1000 days after their optical flares. Therefore, NGC 7582 was observed twice in the A configuration at 3.6 and 6cm, once in August 1999 and again in December 2000. The project will be to image the 2000 data for comparison to the 1999 data and pre-flare images, and combine the radio results with models for the X-ray emission to see if a type IIn supernova is feasible. In addition, the possibility that the flare is due to an absorbing cloud "uncovering" part of the nucleus will be investigated.

    Aaron Boley of Mount Union College                    
    works with Mark Claussen

    Methanol Maser Sources--Disks Around Young Stars?

    We (Claussen and Beasley) have performed a VLBA snapshot survey of 12 sources in the 12.1 GHz maser line of methanol near compact HII regions. The purpose of the survey is to extend the knowledge of the structure of methanol masers toward more sources and thus test the statistics of Norris et al. (1993, ApJ, 412, 222) in which the claim was made that a large fraction of methanol masers toward HII regions are frequently located along lines or arcs. Norris' et al. interpretation of these structures is that they indicate the existence of edge-on disks around the forming stars.

    The summer student project would be to calibrate and image as many sources from the 12.1 GHz VLBA project as possible in the available time and to examine the structure/velocities of the maser sources to determine if they fit a possible disk model.

    Kathryn Devine, of Carleton College               
    works with Miller Goss 

    OH Masers in the High Excitation 6cm Line Observed with the VLBA

    We will have new VLBA data on the excited OH masers at 6 cm.

    Jennifer Donley, of Penn State University  

    works with Henrique Schmitt

    Radio and Optical Narrow Band Imaging of Seyfert Galaxies

    This project involves the use of 3.6cm VLA A-configuration images, as well as HST narrow band [OIII] images of Seyfert galaxies. The student working on this project will learn to reduce and analyze the HST images and how to combine them with the radio images. Since the absolute astrometry of HST has a precision of the order of 0.5 arcsec, dictated by the precision of the the guide star catalog, we will have to devise ways of aligning the optical and radio images to be able to compare them. This dataset will be used to study the origin of the misalignment between the accretion disk axis and the host galaxy plane axis, which can be due to mergers with other galaxies, or by self induced radiation warping. It will also be used to compare the size and shape of the Narrow Line Region of Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies, and to estimate the importance of shocks to the ionization of the gas. Right now we have approximately 30 galaxies for which both optical and radio data are available, but we expect to have at least 50 galaxies by the middle of the year.

    Marjorie Frankel , of Wellesley College                    
    works with Tracy Clarke

    Magnetic Fields Threading Galaxy Cluster Gas

    Faraday rotation measure studies of radio sources viewed through the X-ray emitting intracluster gas reveal the presence of magnetic fields threading through the thermal gas. Radio sources located in the central regions of so-called cooling flow clusters show Faraday rotation measures of thousands of radians/square metre with corresponding magnetic field strengths of 10 to 100 microGauss ordered on scales of 1 to 10 kpc (e.g. Dreher et al 1987; Ge and Owen 1993, 1994; Taylor and Perley 1993; Taylor et al 1994). In order to understand how these strong magnetic fields interact with the cooling flow it is necessary to probe the strength and topology of the magnetic fields prior to the onset (or well after the disruption) of the cooling flow. Clarke et al (2001) have studied the central regions of non-cooling flow clusters and find fields of order 5 microGauss coherent on scales of ~10 kpc. Their sample was designed to probe the radial extent of the intracluster magnetic fields and thus they do not have sources viewed through the very cores of the clusters for comparison with the cooling-flow results. I have initiated a series of observations at the VLA with scaled-array polarimetry to probe the magentic field in the cores of the non-cooling flow clusters using a sample of mainly background (plus some embedded) radio sources. Observations have been undertaken at 4 wavelengths in A array and will be followed by two wavelengths in the upcoming B array for a sample of the more compact targets. I would suggest that a summer student could start by making some simple images of the targets (around 17 sources) to find a few 'interesting' objects. To define interesting I would encourage them to use both the image and some background research to target say 3 sources. The student could then carry out Faraday mapping of the chosen targets and possibly assist in the comparison of the structure function with that of the cooling flow sources. If interested, the student could work with a single cluster target and include X-ray analysis in the study. This project could certainly lead to an AAS presentation and likely an ApJ paper.

    Matthew Kunz of University of Virginia
    works with Claire Chandler

    The formation and evolution of high-mass protostars is not well understood. Study is hindered by the difficulty of observing the innermost 100 AU around high-mass protostars; these regions are distant, heavily obscured, and dynamically complicated. However, the archetypal high-mass star forming region, Orion BN/KL, exhibits uniquely strong SiO maser emission from several transitions, and the brightness distributions have been mapped with VLBI.

    SiO maser emission from the two brightest transitions (7 mm wavelength) traces a biconical outflow from a 100,000 Lsun protostar. The masers lie 20 - 60 AU from the protostar and their proper motions, easily observed with the VLBA, are uniquely well suited to the study of outflow (and possibly accretion) dynamics so close to a high-mass protostar. In projects BG98 and BG118 we have begun a several year-long proper motion study of the SiO masers, with observations scheduled monthly. The project is challenging because data calibration and imaging of the maser source are extremely demanding; dynamic ranges of many thousand must be achieved and the source structure is complex, with dozens of emission components in each < 1 km/s spectral channel.

    We propose to work with a student to measure maser proper motions from three epochs of data, to model motions, and to examine in detail deviations from the current simple biconical outflow model in several sub-regions. We will train the student in the necessary VLBI data reduction and post-reduction analysis. In the first four to six weeks, the student will reduce the first epoch of data and construct scripts that will make possible automated reduction of the second two epochs (2 weeks). Experience with scripted reduction at the CfA has demonstrated the feasibility of this schedule. Estimation and analysis of proper motions for a small fraction of the maser components spread throughout the source and for all of the maser components in several sub-regions (4 weeks) will generate results suitable for AAS presentation.

    Laura Lindenmayer, of New Mexico Tech,
    works with David Thilker

    Neutral Atomic Hydrogen (HI) in M33

    We have completed a high-resolution VLA/WSRT survey of HI in M33. Our data comprise the most detailed HI observations ever obtained for a spiral galaxy other than the Milky Way and reveal many striking properties of the neutral atomic gas. The wealth of information contained by these observations presents a summer student several avenues for research, with the particular choice based on student preference and abilities. One of our principal goals is to compile a list of expanding shells and superbubbles in M33. This task will be addressed using a 3D pattern-recognition technique to initially identify a sample of HI structures. Planned follow-up then consists of comparison with optical imagery (to examine the stellar content and ionized gas associated with each well-defined shell). An alternative focus for the summer student could be the study of 21cm line profile variations as a function of environment within M33. The smooth decrease of mid-plane pressure (with increasing galactocentric radius) and the more localized, disruptive influence of massive star formation will be key factors in this analysis. A general investigation, based on median co-aligned profiles, the spectral correlation function, and velocity coherence imaging, has yet to be undertaken.

    Bhasker Moorthyof New Mexico State University
    works with Vivek Dhawan

    Motion of the Galactic Black Hole Binary GRS1915+105

    Radio imaging of GRS1915+105 with the VLBA shows, in different states of the black-hole binary, the core is always a compact collimated jet of Tb ~ 10^9 K. This AU-scale jet is observed to vary in ~30min, fed by relativistic plasma ejected from the inner accretion disk. The dynamics of hot corona (emitting inverse-Compton hard x-rays), accretion disk (soft X-rays), and jet (optically thick synchrotron from radio to IR) are complex and very interesting. There are as well occasional big outbursts, with associated superluminal ejecta expelled to 1000's of AU. The relationship between the AU-scale and large scales is unclear. By astrometry relative to the extragalactic frame, the core has been located to about 1.5 milliarcsec, and its motion after allowing for Glactic secular parallax is consistent with the black hole being stationary with respect to its surroundings (+-100km/s, at 12kpc) A better limit on these astrometric results can be obtained by putting the various epochs of observation into a common reference frame, which has changed due to VLBA correlator model updates. Software to do this is now available, and would be tested and applied. The reduction of existing VLBA data would involve learning about phase referencing, imaging, and astrometry. It is a pretty challenging project, but I think it is realistic to have 1 epoch (the earliest) remodelled, which should form the basis of a paper on an improved estimate of proper motion. There also may be the opportunity to take VLA data on this or another X-ray binary as a target of opportunity.

    Cristina Murrayof The University of New Mexico
    and Michael Fine, of Colgate University
    work with Frazer Owen

    Deep Radio/Optical Surveys of Distant Rich Galaxy Cluster Regions

    The students will work on my deep radio/optical surveys of the regions containing rich clusters of galaxies at z=0.25-0.41. There are three clusters fields now with such data. Besides studying the clusters, a major part of the project involves studying the background sources. The main goal is to determine the radio luminosity function of star forming galaxies as a function of redshift. The redshifts are obtained from deep, broadband imaging to which one can fit templates of various galaxy spectral energy distributions. The major goal for the summer would be to obtain these redshifts for the radio identifications. The computer programs exist to do this: both a program to make the catalogs of the optical sources in each of the 10 optical-near IR bands and to fit the templates using various input parameters. The radio data should be reduced before the summer. Some of the basic reductions of the optical data may be necessary. I think it should be possible to have a set of photometic redshifts for at least one of the fields by the end of the summer and thus we should be able to have some initial answers about the star formation history of the universe.

    Daniel Stark, of The University of Wisconsin                      
    works with Debra Shepherd 

    The W75N Molecular Outflow

    OVRO CO(J=1-0) mosaic data of the W75N outflow will be reduced and imaged. The OVRO data must be reduced with the Caltech MMA reduction package (about 1/3 of the tracks are done so far). A miriad script drafted out can be used for imaging. The student will learn how to reduce and image data. If time permits, 12m CO spectra that are reduced will be used for an optical depth determination of the CO in the outflow. In addition, VLA 7mm continuum data will probe the central region. The VLA and OVRO images will be compared once all is finished. One other possibility is that, if VLBA time is assigned for the source G192.16, water maser observations may trace the dynamics of the disk.

    Stacy Teng, of The University of Maryland
    works with Jim Ulvestad 

    An Age-ordered Sequence of Merger Galaxies

    An age-ordered sequence of merger galaxies is being observed at high resolution with the VLA in order to find the epoch of maximum star formation in the merger process. Each galaxy is being observed in multiple configurations at 6 cm and 3.6 cm. The data are imaged, and areas of compact radio emission identified and measured. Spectral information is used to determine whether particular sources are dominated by supernova remnants or H II regions, which enables estimates to be made of the populations of massive young stars in the galaxies. One galaxy for which much of the work has been completed and published is the nearby merger NGC 4038/9, the "Antennae" (see Neff & Ulvestad, 2000, AJ, 120, 670). The summer project would be to work on analyzing the data on a single galaxy in the sequence, and making the relevant interpretations.

    Diane Wong, of Cornell University
    works with Greg Taylor and Jim Ulvestad 

    "Sub-parsec radio structure in NGC 4151."

    The Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 has been observed in two epochs with the VLBA, looking for jet speeds near the nucleus, a possible compact thermal disk, and the actual location of the active nucleus. The first epoch was rather low sensitivity, and has already been published (Ulvestad et al., 1998, ApJ, 496, 196). The second epoch was observed with the VLBA and phased VLA in 1998, to very high sensitivity at 3.6 cm and moderate sensitivity at 6 cm. The summer project would be to analyze the data from this second epoch, generate final images of NGC 4151, and address the scientific issues listed above.

    Green Bank, West Virginia (NRAO 43m and 100m Telescopes)

    Students conducting their research at the NRAO Green Bank Site in West Virginia included the students in the list below, along with others. The program at Green Bank is under the direction of Dr. Ron Maddalena.

    1999 Summer Student Steve Hicks meets Senator Robert Byrd on the occasion of his visit to the Observatory.

    2001 Calendar of Events -- West Virginia

    The following lists the scheduled activities for the GB students:
    -- Student Orientation and tours

    June 2001

    July 2001

    Melissa Williams, of Valdosta State University                      

    works with Jay Lockman

    Hydrogen in Ursa Major

    Melissa Williams is participating in the study of the hydrogen envelope of the Milky Way galaxy far from the galactic disk where it begins to be affected by the interstellar environment. She will be reducing data from the 1995-1999 HI galactic plane survey taken by Jay Lockman and Ed Murphy using the 140 foot telescope at Green Bank, West Virginia. Plans were made to complete several follow-up observations of the 21 cm HI line using the newly commissioned Green Bank Telescope, the world's largest fully steerable telescope. Unfortunately, the GBT will not be fully operational until a few days after the students leave in August. Paul Robinson is also participating in this project (see below).

    Paul Robinson, of Appalachian State University                   
    works with Jay Lockman

    Hydrogen in Ursa Major

    Mr. Robinson corrects the data taken in the 43m HI survey for so-called 'stray radiation.' The stray radiation subtraction is especially important, since the data cannot really be reduced until the stray correction is applied. He will also be involved in the reduction and analysis of the survey using AIPS++.

    Michael Wallace, of Hampden-Sydney College
    works with Dave Parker

    Accurate Control of the GBT

    I worked for Dave Parker in the Laser Metrology Group. I built a computer interface to the HP-5528A Laser Measurement System to perform automated distance measurements accurately to a tenth of a micron. I also participated in recalibrating parts of the laser range finder and monuments. In addition to laser work I helped to produce plots of data concerning the motion and relative strain in the azimuth track on the GBT. I also helped to produce plots of the vertical and horizontal runout data for the Green Bank Telescope's Elevation Gear. These two sets of data were used to check if both the azimuth track and elevation gear met design specs. Most importantly I learned a considerable amount about the engineering required to produce a radio telescope.

    Thomas Freismuth , of College of Charleston                        
    works with Glen Langston 

    The Second Plane Survey and Transient Sources

    I am working with Glen Langston on the second epoch of the Galactic Plane Surveys at 8.35 and 14.35 GHz. We are comparing the second to the first in order to search for transient radio sources. The surveys were made using the 45' NASA/NRAO Green Bank Earth Tracking Station. I have also been able to sit third wheel and watch over some commissioning observations for the spectrometer on the Green Bank Telescope. Some details of this work can be found on a WWW page and at the Sgr A or Rosette pages.


    Tucson, Arizona (NRAO VLBA Telescope and ALMA Development)

    Four summer students conduct research at the NRAO Tucson site in Arizona during the summer of 2001. The program in Tucson is under the direction of Jeff Mangum. As the NRAO offices are across the street from KPNO/NOAO offices, the group shares in the activities of the NOAO REU program there. For more on their activities see the Tucson Student Page.

    2001 Summer students Rebecca Rosengard, Daisy Raymondson, Sarah Flynn, and Virginia Valentine

    In addition to the general activities carried out at the KPNO/NOAO offices, the NRAO and KPNO/NOAO REU students participate in group activities organized by the NRAO staff.

    One activity will be a lecture series on millimeter wavelength astronomy given by members of the NRAO scientific staff. Four lectures were given, as listed below. Students also visited the Array Operations Center and Very Large Array in Socorro, NM.

    2001 NRAO Tucson Summer Student Calendar of Events

    June 2001

    June 20-21 - Trip to Kitt Peak with NRAO Socorro REUs

    July 2001

    July 9-10: Trip to VLA/NRAO Socorro.

     July 12: 10:00 am. "Radio Astronomical Observations of the Solar System and Star Formation" by Jeff Mangum

     July 19: 10:00 am. "The Cosmic Microwave Background" by Simon Radford

     July 24: 10:00 am. "Radio Astronomical Observing Techniques" by Darrel Emerson

    August 2001

    August 1: 10:00 am. "Interferometric Imaging" by Mark Holdaway


    2001 Summer students get a tour of the VLA antenna from Jeff Mangum.

    The following are sketches describing the work to be done by each REU student at NRAO Tucson.

     Sarah Flynn, of State University of New York at Stony Brook          
    works with Jeff Mangum

    Molecular Outflow Properties

    Ms. Flynn will work on the analysis of CO 2-1 measurements of the molecular outflow properties toward protostellar and young stellar candidates in the Ophiuchus and Taurus molecular cloud regions.

    Daisy Raymondson , of The University of California at Davis       
    works with Jeff Mangum and Simon Radford on

    ALMA Amplitude Calibration System

    A proposed calibration scheme for ALMA uses two radiators at different temperatures mounted behind the subreflector. Based on a design developed at UC Berkeley, a prototype calibration radiator was constructed and tested in the laboratory. Results were summarized in an internal report.

    Rebecca Rosengard, of Wellesley College                               
    works with Simon Radford and Jeff Kingsleyon

    The ALMA Nutator Control System

    The ALMA subreflector nutator is a high performance, recoilless design. In the laboratory, the dynamic responses of the major components of an engineering demonstration model were characterized. These measurements were used to refine a mathematical model of the mechanism. This model is the basis for tuning the servo system parameters. Results were summarized in an internal report.

    Virginia Valentine, of University of Southern California         
    works with Simon Radford

    The ALMA Site

    Since late 1997, tipping radiometers have measured the submillimeter (350 um) atmospheric transparency at Chajnantor, Mauna Kea, and the South Pole. Data from these instruments were edited and processed to produce a uniform database. Overall observing conditions and diurnal and seasonal variations in conditions at the three sites were compared. Results will appear in a journal paper.

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